2 edition of Estonian calcareous rocks and oil shale ash as sorbents for SO₂ found in the catalog.
Estonian calcareous rocks and oil shale ash as sorbents for SO₂
|Series||Thesis on chemistry and chemical engineering. G -- 10|
|LC Classifications||MLCM 2008/43314 (Q)|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||70 p. :|
|Number of Pages||70|
|LC Control Number||2006530907|
1. Introduction. The use of oil shale as a source of energy has been on the rise since more than two decades. It has been used in countries such as USA, resolved USSR states, Germany, and China, while its feasibility is being studied in other use of oil shale is accompanied with a by-product known universally as oil shale ash (OSA). Estonia sees a bright future for oil shale. crushed and heated to high temperatures the rock releases oil and gas. Shale oil, in contrast, is oil locked inside rock that can be released by.
Oil shale in Estonia is an important resource for the national a's oil shale deposits account for just 17% of total deposits in the European Union but the country generates 90% of its power from this source. The oil shale industry in Estonia employs 7, people—about one percent of the national work force—and accounts for four percent of its gross domestic product. Geologists estimate the rocks hold over a trillion barrels of oil. "That is more than all the reserves of the Middle East," Vawter said. But this mother-load is locked deep inside deposits across.
Average values for the porosity of sedimentary rocks have been given by Barrell () as: shale, percent; sandstone, per cent; limestone, percent; and all sedimentary rocks, percent. Additional data since the publication of Barrell's summary indicate that the average value of percent for the porosity of shale may be low. gram (kcal/kg) of rock. The high-grade kukersite oil shale of Estonia, which fuels several electric power plants, has a heat-ing value of about 2, to 2, kcal/kg. By comparison, the heating value of lignitic coal ranges from 3, to 4, kcal/kg on a dry, mineral-free basis (American Society for Testing Materials, ).
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Over 90% of the Estonian basic power supply is covered by oil shale-fired thermal power plants. Every year about 11 million tons of oil shale (ash content %) is fired. The old pulverised firing (PF) and the new circulated fluidised bed (CFB) technologies are by: 2. Unlike shale oil, the liquid obtained by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) miles underground, Estonia's oil shale is a sedimentary rock containing kerogen found close to the surface.
Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is rich in kerogen. Kerogen is a part of rock that breaks down and releases hydrocarbons when heated. Hydrocarbons are substances made entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Petroleum and natural gas are probably the most familiar hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons in oil shale can be used as an alternative to petroleum or natural gas.
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 5) Abstract. Lime is one of the most widely used and cheapest alkalizing agents employed worldwide. Rock Products.
pp. – Google Scholar. Estonian calcareous rocks and oil shale ash as sorbents for sulphur dioxide, Ph.D Thesis. Tallinn University. Shale, any of a group of fine-grained, laminated sedimentary rocks consisting of silt- and clay-sized particles. Shale is the most abundant of the sedimentary rocks, accounting for roughly 70 percent of this rock type in the crust of the Earth.
Shales are often found with layers of sandstone or. The yearbook of the Estonian oil shale industry was issued by: EESTI ENERGIA Le Tallinn (Museum of Oil Shale) p.
28 Kiviõli ash mountain in the s p. 36 A laboratory at the Oil Shale Research Institute in (Museum of Oil Shale) This book is published with the support of: European Union European Structural and. Estonian oil shale belongs to low-grade fossil fuels and by its combustion huge quantities of ash (currently about 5 million tons annually) are formed.
Since pulverized firing (PF) has been used, and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology has recently been implemented – two units each of MW capacity are in operation. Oil shale is a rock that contains significant amounts of organic material in the form of kerogen. Up to 1/3 of the rock can be solid organic material.
Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons can be extracted from the oil shale, but the rock must be heated and/or treated with solvents. mining practice in Estonian oil shale industry. GEOLOGY The Estonia oil shale deposit is located in the north-eastern part of the country.
The commercially important oil shale layer stretches for km from west to east, and for 30 km from north to south. The oil shale bed has a form of a flat bed slightly inclined (2 3 ‰) southward. oil shale in the Lower and the Upper Member of the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the southeastern Junggar Basin, Northwest China, were investigated.
Mineral and bulk chemical compositions, sedimentary facies and distribution of oil shale show that in the Lower Member it is rich in organic matter, but in the Upper Member, organic-poor.
Oil shale is a sedimentary rock containing solid and combustible organic matter (kerogen). Oil shale can be burned as any other fossil fuel or it can be heated without oxygen to extract shale oil. Oil shale (variery Kukersite) from Estonia is very rich in fossils (bryozoans, trilobites, brachiopods).
Mined Estonian Oil Shale Rock Fully Combusted Residual Ash [With Captured SO2] Condensation Train #1 Condensation Train #2 Shale Gasoline Shale Light Fuel Oil Shale Heavy Fuel Oil Sour Semi-Coke Gas 1st TSK Retort Train #3 2nd TSK Retort Train #4 3rd TSK Retort Train #5 4th TSK Retort Train #6 New Condensation Train #3 [On-Line.
Sedimentary rock - Sedimentary rock - Carbonate rocks: limestones and dolomites: Limestones and dolostones (dolomites) make up the bulk of the nonterrigenous sedimentary rocks.
Limestones are for the most part primary carbonate rocks. They consist of 50 percent or more calcite and aragonite (both CaCO3).
Dolomites are mainly produced by the secondary alteration or replacement of limestones; i. block, oil shale ﬂy ash and the sediment from oil shale ash plateau) was quite high (%, %, and %, respectively). The high P sorption capacity by very high P concentrations (– mg.
These rocks are classified on the proportions of vitric, crystal (mineral), or lithic material they contain, for example, "vitric lithic ash," or "crystal vitric tuff." If the mineralogy of the crystal or lithic fragments can be determined, the name of the appropriate volcanic rock can.
conditions of coal and oil-shale deposits. The main problems to be solved are: selective cutting of oil shale (15 MPa) and hard limestone (up to MPa), roof support at the face, stability of the main roof, roof bolting, pillar parameters, backfilling with rock or residues (ash) from oil production.
The Fischer assay yield of the oil shale is 4 to 12 percent and averages percent. The ore is yellow brown and the bulk density is about The oil shale contains percent ash, percent moisture, percent sulfur, with a heating value of 1, kcal/kg (dry basis). About million tons of oil shale are mined yearly (Guo-Quan.
Andres Trikkel, Doctor's Degree,(sup) Rein Kuusik; Mihkel Veiderma, Eesti karbonaatsed kivimid ja põlevkivituhk vääveldioksiidi sorbendina (Estonian Calcareous Rocks and Oil Shale Ash as Sorbents for SO2), Tallinn University of Technology Faculty of Chemical and Materials Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials.
Shale is the most common sedimentary rock, accounting for about 70 percent of the rock in the Earth's crust. Shale is a fine-grained rock made from compacted mud and clay.
The defining characteristic of shale is its ability to break into layers or fissility. Black and gray shale are common, but the rock can occur in any color. Oil companies produce shale oil by fracturing the rock formations that contain the layers of oil. SinceU.S. shale oil has created a boom in domestic crude oil production.
Shale oil comprises more than a third of the onshore production of crude oil in the lower 48 states. sequence. Oil shale in the Parachute Creek Member is a kerogenous dolomicrite (dolomite greater than calcite).
Analcime, quartz, K-feldspar, and albite are also common. Illite is the dominant clay mineral. Fossils include insects, insect larvae, and plant debris. Marlstone and volcanic tuff are interstratified with oil shale.
The experiments for the SO 2 absorption of the samples were carried out in a laboratory – scale fixed bed reactor ().The reaction zone is contained in a m inner diameter stainless steel tube fitted in a furnace for isothermal operation. g of the sorbent material is dispersed in 3 g of inert silica sand, packed in the centre of the reactor and is supported by glass wool.Ash fields of Estonian oil-shale-fired power plants, especially ash hydro-transport system with its large amounts of high-alkaline waters, may cause great damage to the environment.